OBTAINING AND RESEARCHING MILITARY SERVICE RECORDS

 

I. Getting Started

 

Individuals beginning a search of military records would be well served by first getting a general overview of the subject area. Excellent resources in this regard include the “Frequently Asked Questions” publication prepared by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Equally helpful would be the “Frequently Asked Historical Questions” publication of the US Army Military Heritage and Education Center and a comparable piece compiled by the Naval Historical Center. All of these documents are readily accessible on-line at http://www.archives.gov/faqs/index.html, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ahec/FAQ.htm, and http://www.history.navy.mil/nhc3.htm respectively.

 

Additional research guidance is offered by the genealogy section of the National Archives and Records Administration site, http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/military/ . Consult as well http://www.archives.gov/veterans/index.html and http://www.archives.gov/veterans/research/online.html for additional guidance about available information. Individuals unfamiliar with the military may find particularly enlightening the Navy’s description of the contents of a service record, http://www.npc.navy.mil/CareerInfo/RecordsManagement/AboutYourRecord/Pers_Rcds.htm.

 

II. Researching Military Service Records

 

A. Records of Individuals

 

Federal Government Resources. The National Personnel Records Center (NPRC), Military Personnel Records, http://www.archives.gov/st-louis/military-personnel, is a repository for the personnel, health, and medical records of all discharged and deceased veterans (all branches of the armed forces) who served after 1900.

 

Veterans and their next-of-kin may now use “eVetRecs” to request records from the Center, http://www.archives.gov/veterans. Veterans and next-of-kin without Internet access and all others may submit their requests in writing to:

 

National Personnel Records Center

Military Personnel Records

9700 Page Avenue

St. Louis, MO 63132-5100

 

If possible, use a Standard Form 180 for this request. The form may be downloaded from http://www.archives.gov/veterans/military-service-records/standard-form-180.html. Copies of the Form also may be obtained by dialing the NARA’s Fax-on-Demand system at (301) 837-0990 and requesting document number 2255. Requests may be submitted by mail or by fax to (314) 801-9195.

 

If you cannot obtain a Standard Form 180 for this request, include in your inquiry the service member’s complete name, Social Security number and/or serial number, branch of service, and dates of service as well as your return address. Date and place of birth for the veteran would be helpful too, as would be place of discharge, last unit of assignment, and place of entry into service, if known. You must sign and date your request.

 

More than one request may be submitted per envelope, but policy requires that you submit a separate form/letter for each individual whose records are being requested. Please allow at least 2 – 4 weeks for a reply. If you need assistance, telephone the Center at (314) 801-0800 or contact them via email at “MPR.center@nara.gov.”

 

Casualty lists are available as well for some conflicts. The National Archives and Records Administration posted on-line the state-by-state casualty lists for World War II, http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/army-casualties. A county-by-county breakdown of the World War II dead and missing from Texas for the US Army and Army Air Force, for example, may be accessed at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/army-casualties/texas.html.

 

Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard WWII casualties are posted at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/navy-casualties. Those from Texas (including an indication of those individuals held as prisoners of war) may be found at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/navy-casualties/texas.html. Korean War and Vietnam-era casualty information may be retrieved at http://www.archives.gov/research/korean-war/casualty-lists. Information from subsequent conflicts is posted by the Defense Department’s Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm.

 

State Archives. State agencies may be valuable contacts as well. The Military Records and Research Branch of the Kentucky Department of Military Affairs, for example, contains more than 300,000 discharge documents for Kentucky veterans beginning with individuals who served in World War I through modern day. It also contains historical records of Kentucky militia and National Guard units dating from 1792.

 

Oregon’s State Archives offers a detailed listing of the resources it has available regarding the military service of state residents. To assist researchers, the state has prepared the Oregon Military Department Records Guide, 1847-1986. For a complete state-by-state listing of helpful state agencies, see the end of this document.

 

County Records. Although the federal government is the primary source for military records, other sources may be close at hand. Local governments, for example, merit a researcher’s attention, as veterans may have filed their military discharge documents (e.g., DD-214) with the county clerk or recorder.

 

B. Awards, Decorations, and Campaign and Service Medals

 

The Institute of Heraldry provides comprehensive information on Army awards, badges, decorations, insignia, and medals, http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/Ribbons/OrderofPrecedence.htm. For assistance in deciphering abbreviations relating to these items, see the Data Codes Quick Reference Guide listed on https://www.hrc.army.mil/site/active/TAGD/awards/index.htm (see “Awards and Decorations”).

 

Similar information for US Air Force, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy service and campaign medals may be reviewed at http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/ribbons/index.html, http://www.af.mil/news/airman/0101/medals.html, and http://www.history.navy.mil/medals/index.html, respectively.[1]

 

For instructions on how to request original or replacement medals and awards, go to the NPRC’s site,

http://www.archives.gov/veterans/military-service-records/replacement-medals.html.

 

C. Unit Insignias

 

Detailed information about Army unit insignia is available from the Institute of Heraldry, on-line at http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/DUI_SSI_COA_page.htm.[2] The Institute also provides information on rank insignia for enlisted personnel and officers, http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Rank_page/USArmyRankInsignia.htm. Similar information for the Air Force may be found at http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/afhra/heraldry/heraldry.html.

 

Additional information on enlisted and officer rank insignia may be found at http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/enlisted.html and http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/officers.html. Grunt, the Ultimate Military Site, also provides researchers with illustrations of all badges and insignias for all services at http://www.gruntsmilitary.com.

 

D. Burial Location

 

The Department of Veterans Affairs offers an on-line locator service for most of its 120 national cemeteries, http://gravelocator.cem.va.gov/j2ee/servlet/NGL_v1. For veterans buried overseas, the American Battle Monuments Commission also facilitates the search for their final resting place, http://www.abmc.gov/wardead/index.php.

 

III. Understanding What You Find

 

A. Abbreviations/Acronyms

 

The Department of Defense posts a searchable version of its current Dictionary of Military Terms at http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict. For guides to military acronyms and terms commonly used during WWII, see:

 

United States War Department, Dictionary of United States Army Terms, War Department Technical Manual 20 – 205 (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1944); http://users.skynet.be/jeeper/page78.html. (A current version of this document is on-line at http://www.afms1.belvoir.army.mil/dictionary/disclaimx.htm.)

 

United States, Navy Department, Office of Naval History, Glossary of US Naval Code Words (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1948). On-line at http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq79-1.htm.

 

United States Navy Department, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Office of Naval Records and History, Glossary of US Naval Abbreviations (Washington, DC: United States Navy Department, 1949). On-line at http://www.history.navy.mil/books/OPNAV20-P1000.

 

Abbreviations that individuals may encounter frequently, especially in conjunction with World War II research, will include:

 


 

AA Antiaircraft

AAA Antiaircraft Artillery

AAB Army Air Base

AAC Army Air Corps

AAF Army Air Force

A/B Airborne

AD Armored Division or Active Duty

AEF American Expeditionary Force

AGF Army Ground Forces

AGS Armed Guard Service

BB Battleship

BN Battalion

Btry Battery

Cav Cavalry

CB Construction Battalion (SeaBee)

CBI China-Burma-India Theater

CIB Combat Infantrymen’s Badge

CMOH Congressional Medal of Honor

CO Commanding Officer

 

Co Company

CP Command Post

DET Detachment

DNB Died, Non-Battle

DOI Died of Injuries

DOW Died of Wounds

DSC Distinguished Service Cross

ETO European Theater of Operations

FA Field Artillery

GCM Good Conduct Medal

Gp Group

HQ Headquarters

KIA Killed in Action

LOD Line of Duty

LC Landing Craft

LCI Landing Craft, Infantry

LCM Landing Craft, Mechanized

LCP Landing Craft, Personnel

LDF Local Defense Forces

LST Landing Ship, Tank

LSV Landing Ship, Vehicle

LVT Landing Vehicle, Tracked

MC Medical Corps

MIA Missing in Action

Mort Mortar

MOS Military Occupation Specialty

MP Military Police

MT Maintenance

NCO Non-commissioned Officer (e.g., a sergeant)

NMI No Middle Initial

OLC Oak Leaf Cluster (signifies repeat of award)

Ord Ordnance

PH Purple Heart

Plat Platoon

POW Prisoner of War

PUC Presidential Unit Citation

QM Quartermaster

Rcn Reconnaissance

Regt Regiment

Sig Signal

Sqd Squad

TF Task Force

Tk Bn Tank Battalion

TD Tank Destroyer

T/O Table of Organization

Tr Troop

WIA Wounded in Action


 

B. Military Ranks

 

The individual service branches vary in the names they use to designate the grades/ranks of enlisted personnel and officers. Comparable information for all services is available at http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/index.html and http://fas.org/man/dod-101/comp/org.htm. To decipher the abbreviations you might see in a Navy service record, see http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq78-2.htm. During World War II, grades/ranks were as follows[3]:

 

Army

Navy

Marine Corps

 

Private (Pvt)

Private First Class (Pfc)

Technician Fifth Class (T/5)

Corporal (Cpl)

Technician Fourth Class (T/4)

Sergeant (Sgt)

Technician Third Class (T/3)

Staff Sergeant (SSgt)

Technical Sergeant (TSgt)

First Sergeant (FSgt)

Master Sergeant (MSgt)

Sergeant Major (SMJ)

Warrant Officer – Junior Grade (WOJ)

Chief Warrant Officer (CWO)

Second Lieutenant (2Lt)

First Lieutenant (1Lt)

Captain (Capt)

Major (Maj)

Lieutenant Colonel (LtCol)

Colonel (Col)

Brigadier General (BGen)

Major General (MajGen)

Lieutenant General (LtGen)

General (Gen)

General of the Army

 

Apprentice Seaman (AS)

Seaman 2nd Class (S2)

Seaman 1st Class (S1)

Petty Officer 3rd Class (PO3)

Petty Officer 2nd Class (PO2)

Petty Officer 1st Class (PO1)

Chief Petty Officer (CPO)

Warrant Officer (WO)

Commissioned Warrant Officer (CWO)

Ensign (Ens)

Lieutenant – Junior Grade (Ltjg)

Lieutenant (Lt.)

Lieutenant Commander (Lt.Com)

Commander (CDRO

Captain (Capt.)

Commodore (CDRE)

Rear Admiral (RADM)

Vice-Admiral(VADM)

Admiral (Adm)

Fleet Admiral (FADM)

 

Private (Pvt)

Private First Class (Pfc)

Corporal (Cpl)

Sergeant (Sgt)

Platoon Sergeant (PlSgt) or Staff Sergeant (StfSgt)

Gunnery Sergeant (GunSgt) or Technical Sergeant (TSgt)

1st Sergeant (FSgt) or Quartermaster Sergeant (QMSgt)

Sergeant Major (SgtMaj) or Master Technical Sergeant (MTSgt)

Warrant Officer (WO)

Commissioned Warrant Officer (CWO)

2nd Lieutenant (2Lt)

1st Lieutenant (1Lt)

Captain (Capt)

Major (Maj)

Lieutenant Colonel (LtCol)

Colonel (Col)

Brigadier General (BrigGen)

Major General (MajGen)

Lieutenant General[4] (LtGen)

 

C. Military Units

 

For administrative and tactical purposes, military forces are organized in various size units.[5] Army personnel may be grouped in the following manner:

 

Squad – Small unit of 9 – 14 men, commanded by a sergeant.

Platoon – Three or more squads, commanded by a lieutenant.

Company – Basic combat unit consisting of three or more platoons, commanded by a captain. Total force averages about 120 soldiers.

Battery – Artillery combat unit with three or more heavy guns. Similar in size to a company, commanded by a captain.

Battalion – Three or more companies or batteries, commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Total force averages 500 – 800 men.

Regiment – Large unit formation, consisting of three or more battalions, commanded by a colonel. Total force ranges between 2,000 – 3,000 men.

Brigade – Two regiments with supporting artillery and support troops, commanded by a brigadier general. Used in World War I but not in World War II.

Division – The command units for large formations of three or more regiments, with various supporting troops, commanded by a major general. Total force exceeds 15,000 soldiers.

Corps – Two or three (usually the latter) divisions, commanded by a lieutenant general.

Army – Two or more corps, commanded by a general (four stars). The 36th Infantry Division was assigned to the 5th Army in Italy and the 7th Army in Southern France.

 

To assist those eager to understand the often-confusing organizational structure of the US Navy, the Federation of American Scientists offers an “Overview of Navy Units” at http://fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/unit/overview.htm. A detailed description of the Air Force structure is available at http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/afhra/rso/organizations.html.

 

IV. Additional Reference Materials or Resources

 

A. Records of US Ships and Naval Units From the Modern Era[6]

 

The National Archives has custody of a wide range of records relating to ships and other Navy units for the period from World War II through Vietnam, with a heavy concentration in WWII records. Available records include, but are not limited to:

 

Action Reports (WWII)

Armed Guard Logbooks and Reports[7] (WWII)

Casualty Reports (WWII – late 1950s)

Deck Logs (1941 – 1967)[8]

Movement Report Cards (i.e., Records of the Tenth Fleet, WWII)[9]

Muster Rolls/Personnel Diaries (WWII – 1970)

Records of Individual Convoys (i.e., Records of the Tenth Fleet)

Submarine War Patrol Reports (WWII)

War Diaries (WWII)

 

To learn more about the scope of these materials and to request records for a given ship, write to the following address.

 

Modern Military Records Unit (NWCTM)

National Archives at College Park

8601 Adelphi Road

College Park, MD 20740-6001

 

In your letter, include the ship/unit’s name, the date/time period of interest; your full name, address, and telephone number; and as much other detail as possible about the information you would like to obtain. Due to the volume of requests received and the time needed to identify all appropriate records, Archives staff requests that you limit your request to five items per each letter. Allow approximately 10 – 12 weeks from the initial inquiry to receipt of the records.

 

A charge will be imposed for reproduction/mailing of the records,[10] however, do not send any cash/check/charge card information with your initial inquiry. Staff of the Archives will review your request and send to you by mail an estimate of the cost and payment information. Follow the directions contained in that letter to order the desired records.

 

B. State Archives and Historical Agencies

 

AL http://www.archives.state.al.us/referenc/military.html

AK http://www.archives.state.ak.us

AZ http://www.lib.az.us/archives

AR http://arkansashistory.arkansas.com/resource_types/military_records

CA http://www.ss.ca.gov/archives/level3_genie.htm

CO http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/military.html

CT http://www.cslib.org/other.htm#

DE http://www.state.de.us/sos/dpa/collections/civilwar/cw08.shtml

FL http://dlis.dos.state.fl.us/barm/fsa/militarypension.htm

GA http://www.sos.state.ga.us/archives

ID http://www.idahohistory.net

IL http://www.sos.state.il.us/departments/archives/serv_sta.html#military

http://www.cyberdriveillinois.com/departments/archives/research_series/rseries3.html

IN http://www.in.gov/icpr/archives/family/fam.html#MS

IA http://www.iowahistory.org/archives/research_collections/state_gov_records/state_government_records.html#Military

KS http://www.kshs.org/genealogists/military

KY http://www.kdla.ky.gov/collections/military/request.htm

LA http://www.sec.state.la.us/archives/archives/archives-library.htm

ME http://www.state.me.us/sos/arc/archives/military/military.htm

MD http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/refserv/genealogy/html/militrec.html

MA http://www.sec.state.ma.us/arc/arccol/colidx.htm#military

MI http://www.michigan.gov/hal/0,1607,+7-160-15479-126893--,00.html

MN http://shop.mnhs.org/moreinfo.cfm?Product_ID=420&bhcp=1

MS http://www.mdah.state.ms.us

MO http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/military.asp

MT http://www.his.state.mt.us/research/library/pamphlets/genealogy.asp#Military

NE http://www.nebraskahistory.org

NV http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives

NH http://www.sos.nh.gov/archives/genealogy.html

NJ http://www.njarchives.org/links/archives.html

NM http://www.nmcpr.state.nm.us/archives/ancestors.htm

NY http://www.archives.nysed.gov/a/researchroom/rr_military.shtml

NC http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/archives/military.htm

http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/archives/veterans.htm

ND http://www.state.nd.us/hist/sal/gen/infmilitary.htm

OH http://www.ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/military.html

OK http://www.odl.state.ok.us/oar/resources/genealogy.htm

http://www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/res/militaryrecords.htm

OR http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/milit.html

PA http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/milit2.htm

http://www.digitalarchives.state.pa.us/archive.asp

http://www.hsp.org/default.aspx?id=124

SC http://www.state.sc.us/scdah/newgenealre.htm#military

http://www.schistory.org/news3.htm

SD http://www.sdhistory.org/arc/archives.htm

TN http://www.tennessee.gov/tsla/history/military/index.htm

TX http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/arc/service/introhelp.html

http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/arc/pensions/ (Confederate pensions search)

UT http://www.archives.state.ut.us/referenc/militar2.htm

VT http://www.bgs.state.vt.us/gsc/pubrec/referen/military.htm

VA http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwehave/mil/index.htm

http://www.vahistorical.org/research/cw_history.htm

WA http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/genealogy.aspx

WV http://www.wvculture.org/history/military.html

WI http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/military

WY http://wyoarchives.state.wy.us

 

C. On-Line Resources About Military History

 

Individuals and organizations interested in military history are among the most active users of the Internet. As a result, a tremendous volume of information is available on-line about any conflict or military unit, especially those of the modern era. Included among the sites that may be valuable reference sources include:

 

Air Force Enlisted Heritage Research Institute, http://cepme.maxwell.af.mil/heritage/index.html

Air Force Historical Research Agency, http://www.au.af.mil/au/afhra

Air Force Historical Research Agency, Research Division, http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/afhra/wwwroot/rso/rso_index.html[11]

Air Mobility Command Museum, http://www.amcmuseum.org

American Civil War Homepage, http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war

Army Air Forces, http://www.armyairforces.com[12]

Army Historical Foundation, http://www.armyhistoryfnd.org/armyhist/armymain.html

Buffalo Soldiers, http://www.buffalosoldiers.net

Civil Engineer Corps, Seabee Heritage Center, http://www.seabeehf.org/index.asp?cat=82&Action=cat&Page=1.

Civil War Center, http://www.cwc.lsu.edu

Civil War Manuscripts Project, http://www.chs.org/kcwmp/default.htm

Civil War Official Records, http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/moa. (128 volumes of Confederate & Union Army records; 31 volumes of Confederate & Union Navy records)

Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss

Congressional Medal of Honor Society, http://www.cmohs.org

Fleet Air Arm Archive (British site), http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net

Historic Government Publications from World War II, http://worldwar2.smu.edu

Historic Naval Ships Association, http://www.hnsa.org/index.htm (list of historic naval ship museums)

HyperWar (annotated history of WWII), http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar[13]

Index to the Military Rolls of the Republic of Texas (1835-1845), http://www.mindspring.com/~dmaxey/rep_cont.htm

Korean War, http://www.korea.army.mil/org/history

Korean War Commemoration, http://korea50.army.mil/history/index.shtml

Master Index of Army Records, http://www.army.mil/cmh/reference/records.htm

Military Medical History, http://history.amedd.army.mil/default_index2.html

National D-Day Museum, http://www.ddaymuseum.org

National Museum of the Marine Corps and Heritage Center, http://204.2.118.231/store/mchf/index.asp

National Museum of Naval Aviation, http://naval.aviation.museum/museum.html

National Museum of the Pacific War, http://www.nimitz-museum.org

Navy Bureau of Medicine, http://navymedicine.med.navy.mil/default.cfm?seltab=bumed&ecmid=93E9008D-802E-D019-ABBA0925B2764081&docid=10259

Naval Historical Center, http://www.history.navy.mil[14]

Naval Historical Foundation, http://www.navyhistory.org

Pearl Harbor Casualties (Civilian & Military), ftp://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/hi/military/pearl.txt

Rutgers University, Oral History Archives of World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, and the Cold War, http://fas-history.rutgers.edu/oralhistory/home.html

Texas Military Forces Museum, http://www.kwanah.com/txmilmus

US Air Force History Support Office, http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil

US Air Force Museum, http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum

US Army Aviation and Missile Command (i.e., Redstone Arsenal Historical Site), http://www.redstone.army.mil/history

US Army Aviation Museum, http://www.armyavnmuseum.org

US Army Chaplain Museum, http://www.usachcs.army.mil/museum/nav1/mainpage.html

US Army Engineer Museum, http://www.wood.army.mil/museum

US Army Military History Institute, http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi

US Army Military Police Corps, http://www.wood.army.mil/usamps/history/default.htm

US Army Ordnance Corps History, http://www.ordmusfound.org

US Army Quartermaster Museum, http://www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil

US Army Signal Corps Museum, http://www.gordon.army.mil/ocos/museum

US Army Transportation Museum, http://www.eustis.army.mil

US Army Women’s Museum, http://www.awm.lee.army.mil

US Coast Guard Historian’s Office, http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/history/collect.html

US LST Association, http://www.uslst.org

US LST Ship Memorial, http://www.lstmemorial.org

US Marine Corps History and Museums Division, http://hqinet001.hqmc.usmc.mil/HD/Home_Page.htm

US Military Academy, http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/map%20home.htm[15]

US Military Aviation, http://www.globemaster.de

Veterans History Project, http://www.loc.gov/folklife/vets

Western Front Association (WWI), http://www.westernfront.co.uk

Women Air Service Pilots (WASP), http://www.wasp-wwii.org

Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), http://www.twu.edu/wasp

Women of the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Services), http://www.womenofthewaves.com

Women in Military Service for America Memorial, http://www.womensmemorial.org

World War I – Trenches on the Web, http://www.worldwar1.com[16]

World War I Document Archive, http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi

World War I Draft Registrations, http://www.rootsweb.com/~rwguide/WWIdraft.html

World War II Documents, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/wwii.htm

World War II Resources (Pearl Harbor History Associates, Inc.), http://www.ibiblio.org/pha

 

D. Selected Reference Works[17]

 

Adamczyk, Richard and MacGregor, Morris, Jr., eds., United States Army in World War II Reader’s Guide (Washington, DC: United States Army Center of Military History, 1992). On-line at http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/11-9/11-9c.htm.

 

Carter, Kit C., The Army Air Forces in World War II: Combat Chronology, 1941 – 1945 (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1973). On-line at http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/PopTopics/chron/contents.htm.

 

Craven, Wesley Frank, ed., The Army Air Forces in World War II, 7 vols. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1948 – 1958).[18] On-line at http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/Annotations/cravenAAFWWII.htm.

 

Maurer, Maurer, ed., Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1961). On-line at http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/af_combat_units_wwii.pdf.

 

_____________, Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (Washington, DC: United States Department of the Air Force, Air Force History Division, 1969). On-line at https://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/combat_sq_of_the_af_wwii.pdf.

 

Mooney, James L., ed., Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, 9 vols. (Washington, DC: United States Naval Historical Center, 1959 to 1991). On-line at http://www.hazegray.org/danfs.

 

Ravenstein, Charles A., Air Force Combat Wings: Lineage and Honors Histories (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1984). On-line at http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/combat_wings.pdf.

 

Stanton, Shelby L., Order of Battle, U.S. Army, World War II (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984). European Theater of Operations, on-line at http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/eto-ob/etoob-toc.htm.

 

United States Army, “Combat Chronicles of U.S. Army Divisions in World War II,” The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1950), pg. 510 – 592. On-line at http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/cc/cc.htm.

 

 

 

 

V. Reunions

 

For listings of military unit reunions from all service branches, consult the US Marine Corps list of approved reunions, http://www.usmc.mil/reunions/reunions.nsf/approved.

 

 

 

 

 

Last Updated: February 15, 2006 by Sharon Lawrence, Volunteer, Texas Military Forces Museum, P.O. Box 5218, Austin, TX 78703-5218



[1] The site also includes an interesting discussion of battle streamers and a detailed listing of awards for all service branches.

[2] In the alternative, you may write the Institute at 9325 Gunston Road, Building 1466, Room S-112, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5579. Telephone the group at (703) 806-4972 or 4975.

[3] United States War Department, Dictionary of United States Army Terms, War Department Technical Manual 20 – 205 (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1944), p. 125. Note the availability of job descriptions for all Naval personnel at http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/ratings/navrate.html.

[4] The Marine Corps had no rank equivalent to General or Admiral during World War II.

[6] Ship plans may be obtained from the Maps and Plans Work Group, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS), Room 3320, National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001.

For photographs of Naval ships, contact the Still Pictures Reference Team, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001.

[7] For the cargo ships and troop carriers protected by the Armed Guard Service.

[8] Deck logs consist of brief records of the administrative activities of a ship.

[9] These file cards list the ports of arrival, due dates, dates of actual arrival, and the dates of setting sail to the next port as well as convoy information, if applicable.

[10] Reproduction of the records is handled by a private contractor, not federal government personnel. A minimum charge of $10 is imposed on all mail orders.

[11] Excellent source for information on USAF acronyms, abbreviations, lineage and honors, force structure, and unit histories (e.g., wings and squadrons), supplemented by a fine overview (including colored illustrations) of campaign streamers from World War I to modern day.

[12] Offers a glossary and other valuable features.

[13] Includes detailed information about Ships of the US Navy, 1940 – 1945,

http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-ships.html.

[14] Of particular interest may be the guide to Navy museums in the United States, http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/org8-9.htm.

[15] Superb on-line collection of maps covering military engagements from ancient to modern times.

[16] Site has the capability to translate the material into French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish.

[17] The US Air Force History Support Office has made available on-line a growing list of publications covering all facets of Air Force history at http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/titleindex.htm.

[18] Reprinted by the US Government Printing Office for the Office of Air Force History (1983).